End of summer: Eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Serbia, Bosnia i Herzegovina & Croatia)

After a summer of indulgence and living easy, I said goodbye to Tim and met with my friend Marita for a short adventure in Eastern Europe.

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Piedmont vineyards, Turin, Lake Maggiore and hazelnut fields (Italy)

Summer breeze! Makes me feel fine. Here’s the most summery mixtape ever (suggested by Tim originally but now by me).

On the first of August I was sat in the Barcelona airport ready for my flight. Destination: Turin, Italy!

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To the north! Pamplona, Bilbao, San Sebastián and Lleida (Spain)

Someone very special (I wonder who) gifted Tim tickets for the BBK Live music festival in Bilbao.

We made this the perfect occasion to explore northeastern Spain. We packed the car with camping gear and off we went to discover everything we could between Barcelona and Bilbao in just a few days.

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Easter for the non-believers baby: Valencia, Murcia, Palm groves in Elche and Cartagena (Spain)

I’ve just arrived to Barcelona to begin working on my PhD. This is my second time in Spain and since Easter 2017 was just around the corner, Tim and I rented a car and planned an impromptu drive along the south Western coast. These are a few of our impressions along our week-long journey.

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Rediscovering olives as a tourist in Turkey

The purpose of this post is to share my experience with olives, a crop I rediscovered during my travels around Turkey during March 2016. According to the Turkish Cultural Foundation, olive cultivation provides a livelihood for over 500,000 families with more than 1.5 million olive farmers.

Before I begin, what I mean with ‘rediscovering’ a crop is that until my visit to Turkey, I had thought about olives in a very ‘green’ or ‘black’ way. That’s it. Olives for me were either green and bitter or black and milder, extra points if they were stuffed. As with many crops so far, the more I travel and read, the more I discover that each crop has thousands of varieties and that usually the ones that reach me via supermarkets, are often if not always a highly-selected variety bred for the purpose of massive harvest, processing, distribution and commercialisation.

So, let’s begin. This picture was taken in the biggest market in Istanbul near Fatih mosque, I’ve never seen so many olive varieties in my life. The market opens every Wednesday to sell fresh vegetables, cheese, olives, clothes, shoes, bags. In the midst of all that, several stands sell over 20 varieties of olives. They vary in shape, size, flavour and price. When I arrived I was prepared to ask vendors for samples before I chose which type to buy but I quickly discovered that in Turkey markets, this is a given – you just take an olive and try them out.


Olive markets in the Istanbul’s Fatih Mosque

There are more than 80 varieties of olives grown in Turkey. It isn’t strange that I ran into such an abundance of olives since I travelled around Western Turkey and most cultivation happens along the Aegean coast.

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The Aegean Sea and Western Turkey, home to most of the country’s olive production.

Olive production in Turkey is ancient. I had the opportunity to visit the historic underground city of Kaymakli in central Turkey. According to historians, this underground city, home to 20,000 inhabitants, was built by the Anatolian Hitties in the 15th century BC. What particularly struck me were the chambers and vases dedicated to the storage of olive oil.


Food storage chamber in the ancient underground city of Kaymakli in Cappadocia, Turkey.

The cultivation of olives in Turkey remains strong. According to FAOSTAT, Turkey is the fourth largest producer of olives in the world and their production has been growing for the past several decades.


Olive production in Turkey, source: FAOSTAT

Sometimes, certain ingredients are offered to tourists but are actually not consumed by locals on an everyday basis. Not olives in Turkey! I had the chance to join a Turkish family for breakfast or Kahvalti, which included salty cheese, halva, tomatoes bread and olives.

If you travel to Turkey, you’ll come across olives and many more varieties than you have probably seen. I am thankful to the wonderful country of Turkey with its generous people and fertile soil.

What is a food market in Bangkok like?

When I booked this trip, one of the things I was most excited to see, touch, taste and smell was Thailand’s food.

To understand Thailand’s agricultural production, I thought a good start would be to visit one of the most important fresh food markets in the country’s capital, Bangkok. Open from 6:00 a.m. to 2:00 a.m., Klong Toey Market serves as a food distribution centre for this megacity, supplying both big and small buyers.

Klong Toey Market’s location:

Understanding the geographical location of the market is important to understand what it sells and at what price. The market is approximately 2.3 kilometres from the Chao Phraya River, which leads to the Gulf of Thailand. The gulf itself has as a primary inflow the South China Sea. Click on the pictures to zoom out from the market (golden star).

Proximity to a river that runs into a gulf in this case means shellfish, fish, mollusks – lots of them! Thailand is one of the main producers of fish in the world.  This wasn’t surprising as the country has a 2,600 km coastline and a 316,000km2 gulf area (Source: FAO 2009).  The gulf area is for the country’s ‘exclusive economic use’, bringing in a substantial 1.2% of Thailand’s national GDP (Source: FAO 2009). Click the images below to see larger versions.

The fresher the fish, the more value it has. That’s why even though the river is so close, sellers use methods such as ice to keep fish alive.

Rice production

Thailand has an area of 513,120 square km of which 43.3% is considered arable land (Source: World Bank 2013). Most of the agricultural production comes from the central region, fertile in part because of the Chao Phraya River. The country has roughly the same latitude as Guatemala and covers 16 latitudinal degrees with a North-South distance of 1,900 km. All this makes for a very diverse climate. Screen Shot 2016-02-29 at 11.24.15.png Thailand is an important producer of rice. According to FAOSTAT, in 2014, it was the sixth producer of rice in the world (value), with the first five places occupied by China, India, Indonesia, Vietnam and Bangladesh. In the same year, it was also the second global exporter of rice (value) after India (Source: WTEx 2014). Diversity is wonderful, in agriculture it’s particularly important. When I visited the market was expecting many rice varieties and many rice varieties I saw. Click the images below to see larger versions.

There were several rice sellers and each sold 8 to 12 varieties of rice. For all sellers, wild rice, the long, dark brown grain was the most expensive. I also could tell that prices fluctuated according to the length of the grain, the shorter, the cheaper. After a quick online search there are differences related to fragrance, starch level, processing, etc.  (Source: EUTrade). In the market however, to my rice-untrained eye, I couldn’t tell why two grains (that seemed identical) varied in price. Fruits, tubers and other crops This market was a dream for lovers of fish – I’m vegetarian. Fortunately, it also was a dream for lovers of fresh fruits, tubers and vegetables. Here are some of my favourites. Click the images below to see larger versions.

My expectation was to get a sense of what Thailand produces, consumes, trades and why. I acknowledge this market is not representative of the entire country since Khlong Toey Market is very close to a main river. Other regions of the country (i.e. northern Thailand), don’t have the same access to fresh fish or the infrastructure to transport the same goods. However, because of the role this market plays in Bangkok, I think it was a good approximation to Thailand’s agricultural production. My expectations were met and I was able to see, touch, taste and smell food I think I saw I had never seen before – especially mollusks, fish and shellfish! If you want an authentic experience, Khlong Toey Market is one. This was one of the few points of interest as a ‘Western’ tourist in Bangkok, that wasn’t catered to tourists at all. During my visit to the market, which lasted two hours on a Wednesday morning, I didn’t see any other tourist. It was a real, functioning, busy market with friendly but practical people getting on with their work. Thank you for reading! I’ve been posting pictures of my travels on Instagram @angeladelcast in case you would like to see more of my Thailand journey.

Thanks Simon Lex for your thoughtful feedback on this post.